The breeding objective of the KFPS is to breed beautiful horses with typical Friesian characteristics, which are competitive as driving horses and under saddle in dressage, and are also suitable for recreational use. This should be accomplished by selection within the breed, while further reducing inbreeding.
2.1.1. Historical Context – The Friesian-type horse, indigenous to Western Europe, was found from Norway to Spain during the middle ages and was used by knights. Heavy, baroque horses are depicted in old paintings, but this image changed in the 18th and 19th century when Friesians were used as racing trotters. By 1917 only three Friesian stallions remained and a difficult period began during which the breed was used primarily in agriculture; horses were bred with relatively short legs and heavy weight. By 1970 the tractor had replaced the horse in agriculture and Friesian horses were once again used primarily for driving and riding.
The breeding objective advocates a “modern” Friesian horse that retains the typical characteristics of the breed. Although the conformation is mentioned first in the breeding objective, the movement of the horse is 60% of the judging evaluation.
2.1.4. Breeding for Performance – The Friesian horse is used in various equestrian sports: show driving, combined driving, dressage under saddle and recreation. As driving horses, Friesians perform well, but to become more competitive in all sports, attention should be given to the following points:
- strong, powerful hind quarters
- a luxurious horse that is not too heavy, but has ample power
- a long, sloping shoulder
- hard, dry legs
- light-footed movements with a moment of suspension
- size neither too small nor too large
- sufficiently long and well muscled forearm and gaskin
- strong, smooth transition from loin to croup; long and well developed gluteal muscle
- good, wide hoofs with proper heels
- good head/neck connection
- an honest character, eager to work
The Boards of the Friesian horse associations and the breeders together face the challenge and responsibility of improving the quality of the Friesian horse.
2.2.1. Stallion Selection – Breeders should select a stallion whose conformation, movement, sport performance and pedigree will best complement the specific mare for the particular purpose for which the mare is being bred.
2.2.2. Inbreeding – In selecting a stallion, the mare owner has the responsibility to carefully consider the inbreeding coefficient of the resulting foal. It is not an absolute criterion by itself, but should be considered in conjunction with other factors such as desired conformation, intended use, height, etc.
22.214.171.124. Inbreeding Coefficients are shown on registration certificates of horses born after 1988. A low inbreeding coefficient indicates that a foal has few common ancestors, thus minimizing the chance of genetic defects. In the Friesian breed, retained placentas also may be associated with high inbreeding coefficients. The FPS recommends inbreeding coefficients below 5 percent if possible. A simple rule of thumb is that in a foal’s pedigree, no one name should appear more than once within the first three generations (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents).
126.96.36.199. Inbreeding Coefficient Forecasts calculate the percentages of inbreeding for foals resulting from the mating of a particular mare with the North American Studbook Stallions with Approved Breeding Privileges. Members may obtain an inbreeding forecast for their mare(s) from the FHANA secretary upon payment of the appropriate fee(s).
188.8.131.52. Kinship– Kinship percentage is any horses’ relationship to the entire Friesian breed.
2.3.1. Approved Breeding Methods – Natural cover, artificial insemination and limited embryo transfer are permitted. Artificial insemination may include breeding with transported cooled semen or frozen semen. Details are in the following sections. For details regarding limited embryo transfer, see Section 2.12.
2.3.2. Breeding Contracts – All breeding contracts and related agreements between mare owners or semen purchasers and stallion owners or semen venders are the responsibility of the parties involved in the transaction. Those involved in breeding transactions are advised to obtain signed agreements which clearly specify all rights and responsibilities of each party. The FHANA assumes no responsibility for any breeding transaction.
2.3.3. Stallion Breeding Limits – Different breeding limits are imposed by the KFPS on stallions not yet approved on offspring versus those stallions that are permanently approved for breeding after completion of their offspring testing. The KFPS may impose further limits on individual stallions who have not completed all their offspring testing within the prescribed time. These limits may be changed by the KFPS from time to time, and stallion owners/managers are advised to keep abreast of the applicable limits to avoid any penalty that the KFPS may impose for exceeding these limits.
184.108.40.206. Export of North American Approved Stallions Not Yet Approved on Offspring – Stallions approved in North America by virtue of successfully completing the Central Stallion Examination here may not be exported out of North America until they have completed two full breeding seasons. However, they may have semen frozen for use outside of North America, and they may ship cooled semen from North America in order to service mares abroad.
2.3.4. FHANA-Approved Stallion Representative – If the registered owner of an KFPS Studbook Stallion with Approved Breeding Privileges is unable to maintain personally the FHANA Stallion Record Book due to geographic or other factors, a stallion representative may be approved by the FHANA at the stallion owner’s written request.
2.4.2. Imported Semen – FHANA Policy – The importation of semen into North America is strongly encouraged by the FHANA. This practice will allow a broadening of the gene pool within the Friesian horses in North America. It should be clearly stated that the FHANA is not in the business of importing semen. It is the concern of the FHANA that those members importing semen follow the requirements of the government agencies which have jurisdiction over biologic importation.
2.5.1. Online Recording of Breeding Data- Beginning with the 2011 breeding season, all owners (or their FHANA -approved North American representatives) of Studbook Stallions with Approved Breeding Privileges shall be required to record all breedings and/or semen shipments by utilizing the FHANA Portal website. Breedings and shipments of fresh or frozen semen should be recorded daily, but must be done at least once per week in any week in which breedings and/or shipments occur. Failure to comply with this requirement may result in the imposition of a fine and/or revocation of breeding privileges.
220.127.116.11.2.5.3. Continued Use of Stallion Record Books and Paper Breeding Certificates – The continued use of paper breeding certificates is strongly discouraged but is an acceptable alternative for any stallion owner or approved North American representative who does not have the ability to utilize the online system. If this method is to be used, the stallion owner or representative shall submit the season’s Stallion Report and copies (both the mare owner’s copy and the FHANA copy) of the paper Breeding Certificates to FHANA prior to December 1 immediately following the breeding season. Voided certificates must also be submitted; all numbers must be accounted for. Starting with the 2013 breeding season, the fee for submitting paper certificates will be $100.00 per certificate. Stallion reports filed after the December 1 deadline will be assessed a penalty of $1000.00 per stallion.
2.5.2. Breeding Certificates/Birth Announcements- Beginning with foals born in 2013, Stallion owners will no longer have the ability to withhold breeding certificates pending payment of fees and are therefore advised to protect their interests by contract and/or advance payment. FHANA will NOT delay or deny registration of foals born in 2013 and thereafter due to any financial dispute between stallion and mare owners. Starting with the 2016 Breeding Season, FHANA will no long distribute Breeding Certificates/Birth Announcements. All foal registrations will take place utilizing the FHANA portal.
2.5.3. Breeding Certificates for Imported Semen – To enable both the KFPS and the FHANA to maintain appropriate breeding records, the following procedure will apply to Breeding Certificates for inseminations with imported semen:
The semen importer must maintain a record of insemination dates, or of semen shipments, if the imported semen was for resale;
When a mare becomes pregnant, Before December 1 of the breeding year, the importer must notify FHANA of the pregnancy;
2.6. Birth Announcement – Following the foal’s birth, the owner of the mare will register the foal utilizing the FHANA portal The completed form and the Foal Registration Fee must be submitted to the FHANA within 30 days of the foal’s birth. Birth Announcements submitted more than 30 days after the foal’s birth will be charged the Penalty for Late Submission of Birth Announcement, as shown on the List of Service Fees.
2.6.1. Naming the Foal – Each calendar year foal names must begin with specific letters designated by the KFPS. Names must be relatively simple, ideally consisting of a single word. Abbreviations of farm names or initials are not allowed to precede a name, but may follow the name if approved by the KFPS. Names need not be Dutch. Once processed by the KFPS, names cannot be changed by the owner.
After processing the Birth Registration, the FHANA will forward to the foal owner the Birth Acknowledgment form (temporary registration paper or “Blue Paper”). This document serves as a temporary registration paper and must be presented at the initial judging/ identification marking of the foal. A copy of the document should be retained by the owner.
Unless distance or other constraints make it impossible, all foals should be judged in the year of their birth. Foals are judged by the side of their dams only if the are not weaned and may receive 1st, 2nd, 3rd or no premiums. The original Birth Acknowledgment document must accompany the foal to the judging. More information about judging may be found in Section 5.
There is a valid reason that the horse cannot attend an KFPS judging in the year of its birth;
Parentage must be verified;
Simultaneous to obtaining a sample of genetic material for parentage testing, a microchip must be inserted.
These procedures must be performed and certified by a licensed veterinarian who is not the present or former owner of the horse or its dam, using instructions and materials provided by the FHANA.
Each foal receives a permanent identification code. This is customarily administered to the foal as a part of the registration process, in the year of birth. This code will appear on the horse’s permanent registration document. Refer to the Appendix for “Specifications for Permanent Identification for Friesian Horses”.
At the time the foal is initially presented for registration, the owner must relinquish the original Birth Acknowledgment (Blue Paper) document to the KFPS judges or the FHANA. It will be replaced with the appropriate KFPS Registration Certificate. An explanation of each item on the laminated certificates is in the Appendix. Additional registration information can be found in Section 4.
2.11.1. Parentage Verification Policy – Genetic samples enabling parentage verification will be taken from all foals and their dams. The samples may be used to verify parentage at the discretion of the FHANA and/or the KFPS. By requesting registration of a foal, foal owners agree to provide appropriate genetic material from the foal and dam. In addition, parentage verification testing at the owner’s expense will be required in all of the following cases:
- a. embryo transfer;
- b. foals weaned prior to judging;
- c. horses registered without being presented at a judging;
- d. foals produced by dams who were bred to more than one stallion within a period of three consecutive breeding cycles;
- e. other situations in which the parentage and/or identity of the horse cannot be conclusively proved without parentage verification testing.
- Parentage verification at the owner’s expense is available for any horse at the owner’s request.
2.11.2. Stallion Genetic Testing – All stallions used for breeding must have appropriate genetic test results on file with the FHANA and/or the KFPS before they can be granted approved breeding privileges or have their offspring registered.
2.11.3. Parentage Verification Requirement for Registration – Genetic material appropriate for parentage verification or actual test results when required (see Parentage Verification Policy, section 2.11.1.) must be on file with the FHANA before the Registration Certificate will be forwarded to the owner.
2.11.4. Obtaining Genetic Material from Dams – It is the responsibility of each foal owner to provide genetic material from the foal’s dam for parentage verification. In any case where genetic material from the dam is not already on file with the FHANA, owners are advised to request genetic testing of the dam as soon as a foal is born. This will insure that the foal’s parentage can be verified in the event the dam is not available at the time the foal is presented for registration.
2.11.5. Kits for Collecting Genetic Material and instructions shall be sent to owners upon request and payment of the appropriate fee to the FHANA. The owner must specify the particular horses to be tested at the time the kits are requested. Veterinary costs related to parentage verification and mailing costs to the lab are the responsibility of the owner.
2.11.6. Certification of Genetic Material – Members of the KFPS jury, officials designated by the FHANA Board of Directors or the horse owner’s veterinarian may collect the genetic material for parentage verification. The veterinarian or official of FHANA or the KFPS must certify the identification code number of the horse. The owner or former owner may not certify their own horse, even if they are a veterinarian.
2.11.7. Parentage Verification Results and Discrepancies – The test results of parentage verification will be maintained in confidential storage by the Association and will not be available to owners. Random verification of test results will be performed at the discretion of the Board of Directors at the FHANA’s expense. Parentage verification discrepancies will be reviewed by the Board. If further testing reveals that a discrepancy does not exist, the owner will be reimbursed the cost of taking samples. However, if further testing confirms a discrepancy, the horse’s owner or stallion station will be responsible for all costs of testing.
The main reason for embryo transfers is to enable high performance mares to have foals without interrupting training/competition schedules. Two further reasons are increasing the number of foals from a mare in her later years after her offspring have been proven, i.e. from a preferential or performance mother, or when an accident has made further pregnancies impossible. Subject to the foregoing and other exceptional circumstances, foals produced by embryo transfer may be registered, provided the following conditions are met:
2.12.2. Embryo/Oocyte Transfer -a horse foaled by a mare that is not its genetic dam but transferred to her by embryo/oocyte transfer technique shall be eligible for registration, provided the following notification procedures have been performed.
2.12.3. Frozen Embryo- A horse foaled by a mare that is not its genetic dam but transferred to her by frozen embryo/oocyte transfer technique shall be eligible for registration, provided the following notification procedures have been performed.
FHANA, in order to avoid conflict, strongly encourages that the fulfillment of the contract for both Embryo Transfer and Frozen Embryo Transfer be agreed upon by both the mare and stallion owners prior to insemination. Language addressing the execution of the procedure and fulfillment should be contained in the Stallion Owners Breeding Contract. As with every breeding the loss of the stallion’s services must also be addressed in the agreement.
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